The majority of the people in rural areas of India depend upon agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. Due to limited irrigation facilities, productivity has been very, very low and the country depended upon the importation of food. An analysis has been made to study the effect of measures that have been taken to promote the growth of agriculture, especially irrigation facilities. The total area under irrigation in 1950–51 from all the sources was 20.85 million hectare (mha) and as a result, food grains production was only 51 million tonnes with an all-India average yield of 522 kg/ha. This has increased to 281.37 m tonnes in 2018–19 and horticulture production has increased to 314.47 m tonnes during the same period. Average rainfall in India is 1,170 mm, but it is highly erratic and unevenly distributed across the country with high-intensity storms interspersed with long dry spells. This affects agricultural production. Surface and groundwater have both been exploited to increase the irrigation facilities. Quality seeds, fertilizer, plant protection measures, farm energy, mechanization, and minimum support price contributed to the growth in agriculture. Water arresting in catchment areas, increasing groundwater recharge, water storage, channelization, and distribution, and reducing water wastage in irrigation systems are to be promoted to enhance water availability.