This study is vital to understand the existing transportation situation for women in urban Afghanistan and to create solutions toward greater mobility for women. Existing data on gender and transportation, especially from fragile and conflict countries, are limited. While there are studies on the efficacy of gender-segregated transportation (GST), including in countries neighboring Afghanistan, data that map commuting patterns of women in Afghan cities have not existed so far. The impact of sociocultural factors and security-related constraints on the mobility of women finds some mention in Afghanistan’s key national priority plans, but transportation policies have not yet sufficiently addressed the specific needs of women. This study was undertaken to understand the transportation preferences and demand patterns of women living in Afghan cities, which have a comparatively high percentage of working women. The study also explores the potential for introducing GST and its likely impact on the social and economic mobility of women.