Trafficking in persons is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights. Trafficking has posed a serious challenge to Nepal’s socioeconomic development, wherein studies have indicated an undeniable link between trafficking with increased migration and human mobility. The World Bank has extended technical and financial assistance to large-scale infrastructure projects in Nepal - some for improved transport connectivity and trade facilitation both within the country and within the region. These investments are the ongoing Nepal-India Regional Trade and Transport Project and the Nepal Strategic Road Connectivity and Trade Improvement Project. For the World Bank to scale up its efforts to address this issue, it must understand the critical markers of human trafficking in development projects. This study therefore is an attempt to establish a baseline knowledge on human trafficking to: (a) understand the interlinking between human trafficking and cross-border transport connectivity; (b) identify and assess underlying risk factors or vulnerabilities that increase the chances of exploitation and trafficking in development projects; and (c) provide recommendations and a strategic action plan which will enable wider policy decisions, build partnership with relevant stakeholders, and integrate the anti-human trafficking agenda into the World Bank operations.