Overall budget expenditures for Afghanistan have grown steadily in nominal terms since 1389. But taking account of inflation and population growth, real per capita spending has been roughly constant since 1392. Given that the growth and revenue outlook is challenging, there will be continued pressure to improve the efficiency of expenditures without the availability of substantial new resources. Budget expenditures demonstrate a large degree of inertia. Expenditures by function, ministry, and economic classification over time are fairly constant. This suggests that expenditure is not highly responsive to government policy, but largely determined by previous-year allocations. This analysis provides an initial snapshot of: i) aggregate budgetary allocation and expenditure trends since 1389; and ii) initial analysis of expenditure trends within the five largest ministries. Analysis is based solely on expenditure data included in the BOOST public expenditure analysis tool. This analysis is not intended to be authoritative or comprehensive. Rather, it is intended to identify questions and issues for future analysis through a planned program of public expenditure analysis to be undertaken jointly by the Ministry of Finance and the World Bank. Little in-depth analysis has so far been pursued, and this note is more descriptive than analytical. The World Bank has resources available for much deeper analysis and will discuss options for this with relevant Ministry of Finance teams.