This policy brief was prepared as part of the OECD's Resourcing Higher Education Project. This wider project aims to provide a shared knowledge base for OECD member and partner countries on policy for higher education resourcing, drawing on system-specific and comparative policy analysis. The policy brief for Lithuania was developed at the request of the Lithuanian authorities as part of their efforts to promote the development of a more diversified and efficient institutional landscape in the national higher education system, in which universities and colleges can sharpen their profiles to align better with their individual strengths and the student populations and communities they serve. The brief initially provides a concise overview of the operating environment for HEIs in Lithuania and the existing institutional landscape. It then examines the approaches adopted to institutional differentiation and missions in higher education in other OECD higher education systems, before considering the rationale for reform in Lithuania and – informed by international examples – the policy options open to Lithuania to effect reform of its higher education landscape.