For centuries, Arab nations led the world in the pursuit of knowledge and in scientific innovation and were among the most economically advanced places on Earth. Today, the Middle East and North Africa—nations with diverse political and economic landscapes—are at a crossroads.
Recent decades saw major changes, including the Arab Spring uprisings, and not enough change, particularly in transforming economies to fulfill citizens’ demands for better lives. Several countries are mired in political instability and conflict. Debt levels in others are alarmingly high.