Recent research suggests that the effects of stigma, discrimination, and exclusion against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) people could be costing economies billions of dollars. There are numerous reasons for these costs, including adverse educational environments, employment discrimination, physical and mental health disparities, and violence. This research aims to estimate the economic cost of exclusion based on sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and sex characteristics (SOGIESC) in the Republic of Serbia and to provide the country’s policy makers, civil society, and development partners with new evidence on the ongoing policy dialogue on strengthening the social inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) people. To estimate the cost of exclusion, this report presents two theoretical models focused on the labor market and related issues. The first model centers mainly on the accumulated loss of individual wages due to the consequences of exclusion. The second model calculates the negative effect of exclusion on accumulated fiscal revenues (due to lower income and payroll taxes) and expenditures (due to higher expenditures for unemployment benefits and active labor market programs).