It looks at the rationale for social assistance and at concerns about welfare dependency. It considers how the social protection system could become more responsive to shocks. It also looks at how a graduation approach to social protection could help people leave poverty behind. A graduation program provides coordinated welfare, training, employment, and financial services to poor and vulnerable people with an emphasis on coaching and psychosocial support to build confidence. The paper draws on lessons from in-country pilots and international experience, synthesizing findings from four policy briefs prepared at the request of Mongolian policymakers.