Gender equality is a core development objective, and it is also a smart development policy. Gender equality is also a key pathway to ensure lasting poverty reduction and shared prosperity. Identifying the main gender gaps a country faces across different domains, contributes to better inform policy design. To that effect, this report seeks to identify where progress has been achieved regarding increasing opportunities for women and men in Turkey and where further policy action is required. It focuses on three areas that are critical for gender-equal access to opportunities, namely endowments such as health and education; economic opportunities, such as access to labor, land and financial markets; and agency, including norms, representation, and freedom from violence (World Bank 2016). The report takes advantage of different sources of publicly available data for the country, including the World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI), the Global Financial Inclusion (FINDEX) Database, the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS), the World Health Organization (WHO) Statistics, as well as data from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and others. National surveys by the Turkish Statistical Institute include the Income and Living Conditions Survey (SILC) 2015, the Turkish Labor Force Survey (LFS) 2016 and the Household Budget Survey (HBS). In addition, the Ministry of Family and Social Policies (MoFSP) and Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies conducted the National Research on Domestic Violence against Women in Turkey. The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) collected by the Ministry of Development (MoD) and Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies, and the Research on Family Structure in Turkey (TAYA) by MoFSP were also used. The report aims to provide a panorama of the prevailing gender gaps and areas for work to close those gaps in the country, covering a wide range of outcomes. As such, it seeks to serve as a guiding document for policy action and dialogue, further research, and public discussion.